Violence against women by their partners is prevalent in all countries, across different socio-economic classes. 1 in 3 women globally faces domestic violence. 1 in 5 women worldwide dies because of intimate partner violence.
An estimated 87,000 women who were intentionally killed in 2017 globally, more than half (50,000- 58 per cent) were killed by intimate partners or family members, more than a third (30,000) of the women intentionally killed in 2017 were killed by their current or former intimate partner.” UN Women
These are reported data. But there is a huge number of women who can not report domestic violence. They are either forced or choose to live with their perpetrators for years or for their entire life.
Why women live with abusive partners?
Over the last 30 years or so, most of the females who worked with us in India as domestic help had a very similar story of having physically abusive and alcoholic husbands.
Quite surprisingly, the majority of these women continued to live with abusive partners, in spite of enduring lifelong physical violence. Many women choose not to report domestic violence. When inquired about their choices (or the lack of it) in putting up with this situation, the answers they would give usually give are –
“I don’t have any money of my own”
“He is my husband, how can I leave him?”
“Who will feed my children?”
“My family will never support me”
“How I can survive on my own!”
For women to leave an abusive relationship is not just about a law, it’s about being able to survive once you’ve left abusive relationship. Somewhere to go, an income, not having a social stigma attached to you, not having family and friends say – “Well, you should have just lived with it.”
Though the reasons might appear to be predominantly economic, there are many social, cultural, and pshyco- social factors behind one’s choice of living with an abusive or violent partner.
Lack of economic independence
Women in all societies were traditionally and ideally seen as homemakers. Preferences for marrying non-working, ‘homely’, ‘non-independent’, and submissive girls are still popular in many cultures. For centuries, society ignored the dangerous caveat in this system – when a woman and her kids are completely dependent on a man, she has absolutely no choice but to put up with a lot of injustice, economic and mental abuse and violence.
Some women are not brought up to be equipped with the skills they need for economic and emotional independence. When their dreams of having an ideal family or a husband fail, they prefer to surrender themselves to the situation as there isn’t a lot of alternatives.
Millions of women live with their abusers because of the survival of their children and themselves. Social and legal systems in majority of the countries do not provide women enough support needed to escape abusive relationships.
Sruti’s story is a classic example of to what extent patriarchal societies can be detrimental for women. Sruti was a young mother of three children who worked for us in Bangalore as a domestic help. She would work very hard to pay the rent, school fees, and everything else for her family as her alcoholic husband would not contribute anything. She would often show up with bruises and swellings all over her face-signs of physical abuse she had been enduring for years!
I tried making her realize that she should not be with that man even one more day. In my helpless attempt to try to understand why she was doing this to herself, I found out a horrific truth about our hypocritical society. She told me “If my kids starve or I can’t pay their school fees, my brothers and parents would help me with some money. If my husband dies tomorrow, they will come and take me back and will look after my children. But, as long as my husband is alive, I am bound to live with him. My family or community will never accept me or support me if I leave him.”
Some families force women to live with abusive, violent partners even when they are economically independent. Divorce is still a taboo in many cultures. Women are scared of the retaliation of reporting a crime against their husbands, partners, or other family members.
Fear of being Left Alone
Patriarchy teaches women that they are not enough on their own, they need a man around them to complete them, protect them and look after them. Even today, in many countries husbands are considered as legal guardians. His role is to protect her, control her and ‘teach’ her lessons when she is dis-obedient. This creates a huge difference in the power dynamics between a man and a woman. Men often use physical and emotional violence to enforce their power over women.
Regardless of age, educational and professional background, societies expect women to dependent on male family members! women believe that they need a husband to be complete. They also fear to deal with the complex, cruel, and unsafe world on their own.
No country in the world can ensure women’s safety and security. Lack of exposure to the outside world adds an extra layer of barrier in women’s lives, while they are already dealing with adversity at home!! More and more women are breaking these barriers – facing several odds by themselves.
Still, in many countries, women do not feel safe enough without a man around – even if the man is abusive. There is a proverb in India,“known enemies are better than unknown friends”. The sad truth is that women feel being beaten or raped by husbands is better than being molested, raped or harassed by outsiders! That’s what, they fear, is going to happen when they are on their own. And they prefer to live with abusive partners instead.
Watch this video below on “Conceptualizations of Violence and Legal Frameworks” From SDG Academy:
What is the solution?
This complex problem doesn’t have a simple solution. Solving this issue needs participation and intervention of different stakeholders, and addressing the root causes. Raising awareness, education, more inclusive policies to dismantle the systemic inequalities, and empowering women to achieve education and economic freedom are some of the basic steps which can help prevent women to stand up against abuse and tortures.
Reporting domestic abuse to the authorities is not even an option for many women. Some countries don’t have any laws to protect women from domestic violence. Fear retaliation and lack of support and protection from the societies stop them from taking legal actions. Governments should make policies to financially support unemployed women and children affected by domestic violence. We should realize the importance of women’s economic participation. Families and societies must raise women to be confident and independent citizens who learn to step up for their own rights and safety.